Saturday, 29 April 2017




Before couple days ago I have create my CV or resume which will allow anyone to see my full activities, education, skills as well as other hobbies related to my work.



I shall note that this CV will be constantly updated as I progress and learn new skills on the way so that you can see my full experience so far and in the future. 

Added on 29 April 2017
CEO, Amar Tufo

Friday, 28 April 2017


Welcome to my NDG Linux Essential course week 4 official report. It's been a while since I posted my third week report of this course in which I'm enrolled and today was my first lab on module 4 of this course. If you wonder what was the lab about, well it was Command Line skills and some frequent commands used in BASH such as: which, echo $PATH, echo today is `date` a back quotes command as well as uname. Most interesting part of NDG Linux Essential course Module4 was certainly final exam for this part in which I scored the 8 grade.  Here's a quick screen shoot of my test as well as my grade.

Written by: Amar Tufo
28. April 2017


Figure 1: NDG Linux Essential course | Module 4 exam

You can also see entire exam for module 4 of my NDG Linux Essential course in this pdf file which I have make.


As you can see above my test, there is my name on top of it to prove that I'm enrolled and so that NDG Linux Essential instructor can grade my work. Basically this test consisted from 10 questions covering both Linux terminology as well and BASH commands. This my final score on this exam.


Figure 2: NDG Linux Essential course | Module 4 exam score

I can say that I'm very happy and motivated by my accomplished results and progress that I achieved so far. Module 4 has been successfully completed and soon I will start Module 5 of this course. Till then, have a nice weekend and wee see you soon.

Wednesday, 19 April 2017




Apart from writing about technology following the footsteps of Ubuntu Linux development and it's future, I'm an archaeologist and therefore you will find interesting archaeology articles at this site. I'm so much interested in deep past of planet Earh wondering what kind of world was it back half a billion years ago, what kind of animals walked it's surface and swim it's seas. Thanks to paleontology and combined forces of archaeologist as well, we can peace together an amazing story of our planet and it's amazing prehistoric times. In this installment I bringing top 5 prehistoric predators that once roomed the planet Earth. I shall note that this is a article on demand as response to Miloš Miladinović review of the movie 'Jurassic World 2015'.

Written by: Amar Tufo.
17. April, 2017

You can also see my trailer for this article: 'Top five prehistoric predators that once roamed the Earth'.



1. Anomalocaris

Anomalocaris or abnormal shrimp is considered to be the Earth first super predator that swim the Cambrian seas some 541 million years ago. This predator with long body up to length of 2 m and unique pair of eyes for night hunting suggest that Anomalocaris was indeed top predator that mostly hunted smaller trilobites and other sea animals. Fossilized remains of this animal were found across the globe in Canadian Burgess Shale formation, Australia, China and across the United States before becoming extinct some 485 million years ago at the beginning of Ordovician era. 

2. Megalograptus



On the prehistoric Earth, life was flourishing in the seas for as much as 350 million years. Among the seas predators comes Megalograptus a fierce scorpion predators from eurypterid family that lived during Ordovician era around 445 million years ago. Having been as on the first creatures to step on to dry land, Megalograptus was probably a night hunter preying upon smaller orthocones, trilobites and early fishes. It's fossilized remains were mostly find trough United States before being extinct in Ordovician mass extinction event around 455 million years ago.

3. Brontoscorpio



Meet Brontoscorpio, monstrous sea scorpion of the Silurian period some 440 - 417 million years ago. This monster scorpion sweam the Silurian seas alongside Cameroceras, Cephalaspis and Pterygotus. It has an armed body just like Anomalocaris and stinger with size of a light bulb. It can grew up to one meter in length and probably feed on trilobites and Cephalaspis which was armored fish as well. Fossilized remains of Brontoscorpio were mostly uncovered in Trimpley and Worcestershire, England UK.

4. Dunkleosteus


Image credit: www.dkfindout.com 

Dunkleosteus was a large armored fish that lived during the late Devonian period some 380 - 360 million years ago. It was named in 1958 after David Dunkle, a curator at Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Dunkleosteus was a top predator during much of Devonian period, a period known as age of fish. It was able to grew as much as 10 meter in length, had fierce bite about 8000 pounds. This predator feed on other fishes as well as other smaller Dunkleosteus which was according to some researchers a sign of  cannibalism due to probably food shortage. Fossilized remains of this predator were found across North America, western Europe, northern Africa, Texas, California, Pennsylvania and Ohio. It is assumed that Donkleosteus was eventually extinct at the dawn of Carboniferous period, fourth period of Paleozoic era, around 358 million years ago.

5. Mosasaurus


 Image credit: dinosaurpictures.org 

Mosasaurus was a large marine reptile that lived during the Cretaceous period some 90 million years ago. Able to grew as much as 18 meter in length, this giant prehistoric monster feed on sharks, plesiosaurus, giant turtles, birds, as well as other mosasaurus. Named after Muse river in Netherlands were the first mosasaurus fossil were first discovered in 1764, and later across the globe in northern Europe, eastern Europe, Russia, Turkey, the Middle East, Canada, South America. Mosasaurus was a dominant sea predator for 40 million years ago before being extinct at the end of Cretaceous period 65 million years ago alongside the dinosaurs.  

Conclusion:

Although today we knew much about prehistoric life and lifeforms on planet Earth, jet there are still dozens of species waiting to be discovered. As much as we think that Anomalocaris and Mosasaurus look the way we think they dis, on thing has to be always in our mind, it's just a speculation based on our model of reconstruction which we used to bring those beasts back from dead. Further paleontological research and archaeological digs across the globe will help us to understand the way these beasts feed, way they adopt to Earth climate changes and food supply that sustain they're enormous length is an amazing story of evolution of life on planet Earth. But thanks to fossilized records in Earth geological layers, that we can today told an amazing story of prehistoric life on Earth. 


References:

1) Anomalocaris

2)BBC Walking with the monsters - Anomalocaris & Brontoscorpio

3) Megalograptus
http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/m/megalograptus.html

4) Brontoscorpio

5) Dunkleosteus

6) Sea Monsters with Nigel Marven | featuring Dunkleosteous

7) Mosasaurus




About Author:


My name is Amar Tufo. I’m 24-years old graduate student of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy at Sarajevo. Experinced blogger, founder and CEO of this web site, author, web developer as well as proud Ubuntu Linux & Open Source software evangelist. Big dreamer and Trance music lover.

Let's Get Connected: facebook

Tuesday, 18 April 2017



Welcome to my third week report on my NDG Linux Essential course. As I have promised early on my few posts, I have made a very good progress in my Linux adventure so far. I have completed four modules in my NDG Linux Essential course and also to further my knowledge made a couple Linux test my self covering Linux terminology, Networking, BASH scripting skills, Linux directory architecture and much more. As you shall see in a moment, these are practically qualified LCPI - 1 tests which do not differ from official tests compiled by Linux Institute.

Written by: Amar Tufo
18. april, 2017

 Test above consists from 30 questions covering basic Linux terminology, desktop environments, questions that required answers on the line such as: ' Which directory contains programs which are compiled and installed manually?' and so on. I'm really happy about these tests aside from official exams that I take at my NDG Linux Essential course, which requires exam completion in order to complete each module. As for my test, you may download it, study it and take it you're self and check your knowledge in Linux.

That's it for today.
We see you soon at 4-th week report.

About Author:

My name is Amar Tufo. I’m 24-years old graduate student of Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy at Sarajevo. Experinced blogger, founder and CEO of this web site, author, web developer as well as proud Ubuntu Linux & Open Source software evangelist. Big dreamer and Trance music lover.


Let's Get Connected: facebook

Sunday, 16 April 2017


Have you ever wondered what happens when you turn on your Linux machine? What processes are happening inside your hard drive, your RAM, BIOS and etc. Well, you can stop searching for answer on line, because here's an article that will explain Linux Booting process in 6 steps. I should note that this article is a part of my NDG Linux Course program that I'm enrolled in, so you can read it on my website.

Written by: Amar Tufo.
16 April, 2017





 1. BIOS - 


 BIOS seraches, loads and executes the boot loader.

2. MBR (Master Boot Record) - it is located in the 1st sector of the bootable disk /dev/sda. MBR is less than 512 bytes in size and consists of three components:

- primary boot loader 446 bytes
- partition table info 64 bytes
- magic numbers 2 bytes

MBR loads and executes the GRUB boot loader


3. GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) - It is a Multiboot boot loader which displays a splash screen, waits a few seconds, if you don't enter anything, it loads the default kernel image as specified in the GRUB conf file /etc/grub.conf. It contains kernel and initrd image. In case you don't know what initrd image is? Initrd stands for InitialRAMdisk which is initial root file system that is mounted prior to when the real root file system is available. The initrd is bound to the kernel and loaded as a part of the kernel boot procedure.



4. Kernel - Once the control is given to the kernel which is the central part of any OS and which act as a mediator between hardware and software. Kernel once loaded into RAM stays there until the machine is shutdown. Once the kernel starts it's operation the first thing it will do is to execute the INIT process.


5. INIT (Initialization) - Looks at the /etc/inittab file to decide the Linux run level. There are 6 major Linux run level every time Linux boots:


- 0 halt
- 1 single halt mode
- 2 multiuser NO NFS
- 3 full multiuser mode
- 4 unused
- 5 x11
- 6 reboot

6. Run Level Program - When the Linux is booting up, you might see various services getting started, such as 'starting sendmail . . . . OK'. There are called the run level programs. Depending on your default init kernel setting, system is going to execute the programs from one of the following directories: run level 0 - /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/ .

This is the 6 booting steps of Linux. If you like this article, don't forget to share on the social networks, be sure to visit my official LinkedIn page to find out about my work and the things I wrote and do. If you are willing to know in details about processes that are happening during Linux boot than follow the links bellow.

> 6 Stages of Linux Boot Process (Startup Sequence)

Thursday, 13 April 2017


As you now I'm enrolled in NDG Linux Essential course which is preparation for takink LCPI - 1 (Linux Certified Professional). Therefore I have compiled a series of useful online resources and books which I used alongside this course as well as beside it to expand my further knowledge in Linux administration, Networking, CLI skills, BASH skills and more. So, without further delay, check out my list.

Written by: Amar Tufo
13, april 2017

1) Debian Administrator's Handbook - Debian Jessy from discovery to mastery | https://debian-handbook.info/




2) Pro Ubuntu Server Administration - Sender Van Gugt
© Apress 2009 |  https://doc.lagout.org/operating%20system%20/linux/Pro%20Ubuntu%20Server%20Administration.pdf



3) The Linux System Administration Guide 1993 - 2014 GNU Free Documentation License 1.2 |  http://www.tldp.org/LDP/sag/sag.pdf




 4) The Linux Network Administrators Guide - Group of authors             http://www.tldp.org/LDP/nag2/nag2.pdf


 5) The Linux Networking - Paul Cobbaut © CEST 2015                          http://linux-training.be/linuxnet.pdf




 6) Linux Network Administrator's Guide - 3-rd Edition © O'Reilly 2015 | ftp://217.147.231.57/Cours/Reseaux/Linux%20Network%20Administrators%20Guide%203rd%20Edition.pdf



 7) The Linux Admin Quick Reference - Command Chet Sheet               





8) Basic Linux Networking Commands You Should Know - It's F.O.S.S  https://itsfoss.com/basic-linux-networking-commands/




 9) Learning the BASH shell - 3-rd Edition, Cameron Newham © O'Reilly 2009  | http://bit.ly/2pdX4l0




10) BASH Reference Manual  © GNU Fuondation 2016




 11) 7 dmesg command for troubleshooting Linux system - TecMint 



Ok, this is it. I shall note that some of the links provided in my article might not work therefore I suggest you typing the name of provided book/or on-line resources in this list for quicker finding this you're self. I need to say that this list is not the only one as I shall compile my next one with much better resources and tutorials as well as exams for expanding knowledge in Linux. Till than, well see you soon. 

Wednesday, 12 April 2017


It's been a while since I post about my Linux Essential course provided by Network Development Group and Cisco. Now I'm in second week of my Linux Education adventure and this is what I done so far. As you shall see in a moment, I have taken different approach to my course and you're gonna see in a moment what it is. 

Written by: Amar Tufo.

#Week Two - and I'm still progressing!


There we go, a good friend of all Linux geeks a CLI (Command Line Interface). I finally comes to point where this course gets really interesting in a sense that I' supposed to execute a certain command via Terminal in a BASH (Bourne Again Shell). To be honest, I prefer the dark side of Linux, a good old TTY. 


# When on course, write down your blog!



Here I have taken a screen shoot with my smart phone cam of my writings during this course. As you can see at the right upper corner of my page, there's a 'Linux Preparation LXO - 1' title and bellow it my respected name. Bellow the title of this course there is old logo of my web site. Basically I taken some notes on important commands that I'm working with such as ls to list the contents of directory; cd to navigate to certain directory; history command to list all the commands that have been previously used and etc.



In this screen shoot, you can see that I have reach a part of my course 'Indroducing BASH shell variables' where I have write some basic and important things to remember, such as variable HISTSIZE that can display how much command is going to be stored in it's memory. For example, I can say my HISTSIZE variable that it should store 1000 commands in it's memory and sintax to do that via Terminal is the following:

HISTSIZE = 1000
echo  $HISTSIZE

Once you type history command in Terminal, it will store 1000 commands in it's memory per one entry. For more about history, please see man history.
In this picture, you can see how far did I come on my NDG Linux Essential Course dashboard. The blue rectangle shows exactly which part did I reach and which parts were completed. But here's the interesting part of my Linux adventure, it's a self made test of Linux skills containing some 40 questions covering both system administration, network skills as well as commands. 


I need to note that this screen shoot of my test is compiled after my job interview with in the Crossvallia company in BiH, headquarters in Bosmal City Center, Sarajevo. They give me the same test to complete which was not different from my own test which I compiled one week later to boost my Linux skills, and eventually I got to NDG Linux Essential course which will do just that, make me a hell of Linux administrator.

What to say at the end?

Well, honestly I'm really inspired while doing my education on Linux and progressing trough this course. On things that inspires me more, that this entire course can be linked to your professional LinkedIn account where it can show of your skills and eventually get you hired. 

Well see us soon in my third week report, till than.
Best wishes.

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