Wednesday, 16 August 2017


Welcome again to my NDG Linux Essential adventure, module 7 of my Linux course. Shortly, NDG Linux Essential module 7 cover mostly working with tar, gzip, bzip2, compressing/uncompressing, creating tarball, viewing it's content, extracting it into other directory on your Linux distribution and so on. I have learn so much amazing and important things on working with tarball, creating a backup of your files and directories which could be very handy when you uploading a files to your server or website and so on. Finally, my module ended with exam that consisted of 10 questions which I successfully scored with 10 grade. Here's my final exam of module 7. Oh, I almost forgot. Before you view my exam, I suggest you to jump on my tutorial of working with tarball which you can see down bellow.

Written by: Amar Tufo
16. August 2017


Video tutorial: Working with tarball ~ Amar Tufo

Ok, and here's a test for NDG Linux Essential module 7 of my intensive Linux course which consisting of 10 questions as previous modules. Question have been answered and you can access them via my website.



That's all folks for this week. I hope that this intensive Linux course will help and motivate you as well to get started your own Linux career and preparation for some serious Linux certification such as LPIC-1 which I have started. I see you soon on my YouTube channel and in NDG Linux Essential - week 8 - . Till then, have a nice weekend!

Thursday, 10 August 2017


Last week I have written a short intro for my NDG Linux Essential course - module 7 - and now I can proudly announce that week 7 of my NDG Linux education is successfully completed  and here are some key notes and summary of my NDG Linux Essential - week 7 -. As noted previously in my short intro of module 7, this entire module was very short but cover some skills working with compressing, decompressing, creating .tar archive, working with gzip, bzip and so on. So here are some important notes on working with tarball, creating an tar archive, listing it's content, updating the archive and so on. I should also note that this article includes the final exam for module 7 at the end which you can see down bellow. Ok let's start. . . 

Written by: Amar Tufo
9. August, 2017

The tar utility is widely used by all Linux distributions. Along with being a useful tool for backup, tarball files are also a convenient way to distribute files. They allow a single file download and because compression can be handled with tar they also creates smaller files for download. Tarball files do not have to end with .tar extension, but it's a good practice to do so. Files that are joined and compressed often use the .tar.gz extension. In the following sample I will demonstrate how to create tarball file, how to extract it, see it's content and extract a single file out of tarball.

1# Sample: Creating archive.tar.gz file


                                                             
Image 1: Creating archive.tar.gz for final directory
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop

In this first sample I have created archive.tar.gz tarball as backup for my final directory. In the image1 above, archive contents were listed upon compressing. Short note for the command used above is following:



tar -zcvf archive.tar.gz final/

Once typed this command will compress final directory with all it's content into single tarball in this case archive.tar.gz. If you wonder what -zcvf stands for than here what they are:


tar -zcvf archive.tar.gz final/
*z - tells the tar to use gzip tool
*c - creates an archive
*v - tell me what you are doing
*f - file name

2#Sample: Listing the archive.tar.gz content and extracting it to another directory

Let's assume that you want to view the content of archive.tar.gz before extracting it. Here's the command that will do just that:


tar -tf archive.tar.gz 

Once typed into terminal this command will generate the following output:


Image 2: Listing the content of archive.tar.gz tarball
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop


Now as we have listed our content, let's extract our archive.tar.gz in /tmp directory of my home folder. Here's the command that will accomplish such a task.


tar -xvzf archive.tar.gz -C /home/amar/tmp

Note: -C in this command allow you to give the tar command a path to destination directory in which you are extracting your tarball in this case archive.tar.gz > /home/amar/tmp.

Once you typed this command this is the output you should see. Image 3:


Image 3: Extracting archive.tar.gz into /home/amar/tmp
Image source: home/amar/Desktop

Note that I have extracted the archive.tar.gz content into /home/amar/tmp directory from Desktop as my pwd directory. Keep this in mind that before each extraction of the tarball move the archive into empty directory or the directory/files will be replaced and overwritten. 


Image 4: Successfully extracted archive.tar.gz tarball file into /tmp directory
Image source: /home/amar/tmp

3#Sample: Adding log.txt file into archive.tar.gz and extracting a single file out of archive

Let's assume that you want to add a file into existing archive in this case log.txt file into archive.tar.gz. For this purpose I have created four files on my Desktop namely file1.txt, file2.txt, file3.txt and log.txt. I will now create an archive.tar.gz which will contain only file1.txt, file2.txt and file3.txt using the following command:


tar -cvf archive.tar.gz file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt


Image 5: Creating a new archive.tar.gz 
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop

Now let's update existing archive.tar.gz by adding log.txt into our archive. We can do that using the following command:


tar -rf archive.tar.gz log.txt

Your output should be the same as main if you have type it correctly. See the image 6 down bellow.


Image 6: Updating the existing archive.tar.gz with log.txt file
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop

4#Sample: Extracting log.txt into different directory

Sometimes tarball can be very big in size and you don't need an entire archive. You need only a specific file as Linux System Administrator into let's say /tmp directory. In this sample I'm about to show you how to extract log.txt file from archive.tar.gz file into /tmp directory which is in my home directory.


tar -xvf archive.tar -C /home/amar/tmp log.txt

Note when extracting a single file out of tarball, file is added at the end of command. In other case, the file will be extracted into present working directory. Here are the final results of this command.


Image 7: Extracting log.txt file from archive.tar into /tmp directory
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop

Here's the terminal output for our /tmp directory which holds log.txt file which we extracted from archive.tarball.


Image 8: /tmp directory with log.txt file
Image source: /home/amar/Desktop


This all folks for today. I hope that this article has helped you in understanding the way tar works, how to create an tarball, how to list it's content and how to extract the single tarball file into another directory. Make sure to commend down bellow and share this article. Stay on my site because I lot's of other useful and educational content for you all. We see you soon at NDG Linux Essential week 8, till then have a nice stay at my website.


Tuesday, 1 August 2017


Welcome to my seven week of my NDG Linux Essential adventure. As you know I have recently published my first LPIC Shell Exam, final exam for SHELL chapter compiled after LPIC-1 Certification Bible which I use for LPIC-1 exam preparation alongside NDG Linux Essential course. As noted I have completed successfully LPIC-1 Shell chapter from mentioned book (link is down in description bellow). Now the NDG Linux Essential course - module 7- is covering the following tasks in order to complete it:

> > Compressing files under Linux format such as .tar.gz
> > Decompressing files . . .
> > Archiving . . .

Basically this module is very short but it does include the final 10 question exam in order to complete it. Check the image down bellow:


Image 1: NDG Linux Essential module 7 intro


As you can see, it is very short part of my NDG Linux Adventure and therefore I'm going to expend it using LPIC-1 Certification Bible /special chapter. Stay tuned and have a nice stay at my blog.

Sunday, 23 July 2017


It's been a week since my latest post from my LPIC - 1 preparation which is still in progress and in week seven of my Linux adventure. Last week I have cover an amazing SHELL chapter from LPIC Certification Bible which is official resource for LPIC -1 or Linux System Administrator. From my point, I'm quite experience working with SHELL, I can write a simple BASH script, create an environment variable and so on. Basically this chapter covers almost the same thing but with better advice, tips and notes on SHELL. In this article you can see my full LPIC SHELL exam which consists from 23 questions compiled using the SHELL chapter from LPIC Bible book. 

Written by: Amar Tufo
23. July 2017





As noted in the exam bellow, this is unofficial exam which I have compiled for my self to test my knowledge and get prepared better for final LPIC exam. Test is has open access and you can use it as well to see some of the very similar question from LPIC exam / Linux System Administrator. That's all for today and I'l see you next time.

Thursday, 13 July 2017


Iako sam nedavno uspio objaviti oba zvanična izvještaja za šestu sedmicu NDG Linux kursa, direktne pripreme za LCPI - 1 test za Linux System admina, tako sam danas iskoristio svoje znanje iz Kdenlive-a te kreirao kratak video komentar na svoju edukaciju i podijelio s vama neko stečeno znanje. Ja ovdje neću navoditi reference do zvaničnih članaka NDG Linux kursa jer su isti pomenuti u opisu mog video komentara. Prije nego pogledate video, ne zaboravite stisnuti <SUBSCRIBE> na moj YouTube kanal jer mi to pomaže da pravim bolje YouTube video klipove.

Piše: Amar Tufo
13. Juli 2017


To bi bilo sve na kraju. Ostanite još na mojoj web stranici jer možda pronađete još po koji zanimljiviji članak osim ove hard core NDG Linux obuke. Do čitanja !!!

Monday, 10 July 2017


Finally I have written my NDG Linux Essential course - week 6 - in two parts and now I'm about to show you how my final exam look like, it's question and finally the grade I scored. I must say that these are official NDG Linux Essential exams for each week I passed and they can be really challenging when it comes to show off your Linux skills and knowledge. Ok! Let's jump into test. 

Written by: Amar Tufo
10. July 2017




This is the official and final exam for NDG Linux Essential module 6 - working with files and directories. I scored 8 grade in this test as I'm very proud on my self since these kind of skills are mostly required when working with files and directories in Linux. Make sure to comment my test, share booth articles in description bellow. That's it. I'l see you at 7 week of NDG Linux adventure.

________________ References:_______________

1) NDG Linux Essential course - week 6 - part I

2) NDG Linux Essential course - week 6 - part II

Welcome to my second part of NDG Linux Essential course which is preparation for LCPI - 1 exam to becoming Linux System Administrator. I have recently write a first part of NDG Linux Essential - week 6 - part I so make sure to read it first before moving on my second part. In this part I'm about to show you the rest of commands such as cp, mv,  rm, touch, cat, and example for each of this command to get idea what they do and what is their purpose. After this part, I'm about to publish separately final exam for module 6 in .pdf file so that you can see it and experience some of the Linux questions from this course in first hand. Let's begin!

Written by: Amar Tufo 
9. July, 2017

1) cp - copy

We are beginning with command cp which is used for coping files and folders from one location to another on your home folder. In the following sample I'm about to copy a empty file foo.txt from Desktop to directory named foo


Image 1: Coping foo.txt file to foo directory via cp command 
Source:  local /home/amar/Desktop

In short, this image above shows entire process of coping an empty file named foo.txt to foo directory. I have also used ls command to list the foo directory content so that you can see what's inside, in this case, an empty foo.txt file.

2) mv - move or rename

There is a god reason why you need to now how to use mv command. This command allows you to move files and directories or renamed them while moving end so on. In the following sample we are going to move image.png file to foo directory on Desktop. See the image 2 down bellow:


Image 2: Moving image.png to foo directory via mv command
Image source: local /home/amar/Desktop

In short, I have moved image.png file via mv command into foo directory. Now as I have mentioned above, mv command can be used to rename the files and directory as well. In the following sample, I'm about to rename foo directory into image directory using mv command. See the image 2.1 down bellow:


Image 2.1: Renaming foo directory into image directory via mv command
Image source: local /home/amar/Desktop

There you go, now our foo directory named has changed into image directory. Now our image directory has his child file image.png. Pretty amazing, don't you think?

3) rm - remove a file or directory

Well, there is nothing so special about this command and I assumed that most of you are already familiar with this command and how to remove a file via rm command. Just in case you don't know, here is the sample. In the following sample I'm about to remove image directory with it's image.png file from Desktop using only rm  command. See the image 3 down bellow:


Image 3: Removing image directory from Desktop using rm command
Image source: local /home/amar/Desktop

Short note, the following command 'rm -rf -v image' has successfully removed image directory with it's content, image.png file. Only thing that might confuse you is -v argument in front of rm -rf command. It's a verbose and it tells you that image directory was removed, it informs about action that just happened. 

4) touch - change a file timestamps 

One easiest way to create an report.txt file via Terminal is using touch command. Although it changes a file timestamps, this command allows you to create a file as well. In the following sample we are going to create an empty report.txt file on Desktop. See the image 4 down bellow:


Image 4: Creating empty report.txt file on Desktop using touch command
Image source: local/home/amar/Desktop

In the following image 4.1 you are going to see how I modified creation time using touch command. See the image bellow:


Image 4.1: Modifying time creation of report.txt file using touch command
Image source: local/home/amar/Desktop

Here's a short note, in the image 4.1 above I have used the following command touch to create a report.txt file. Such file was created on 18:09:13 | 10 July. Using the touch -m report.txt command, I have updated creation time to most recent on my system clock as you can see, the report.txt file is now created on 18:12:38. That's it. For more about touch command please visit man touch.

5) cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output 

Now, here's a command which you can use to write and read to a file using echo command. Since our report.txt file is empty, in the following sample we are going to fill it with some text via Terminal. See the image 5 down bellow:


Image 5: Writing to report.txt file using echo command
Image source: local/home/amar/Desktop

Short note: In this sample I have write a text 'This is NDG Linux Essential course by: Amar Tufo' into report.txt file using echo command. At the end, I have used cat command to read a report.txt file via terminal and as you can see, the text was successfully written to a file. See the image 5.1 as well:


Image 5.1: Report.txt file fill with simple message using echo command
Image source: /local/home/amar/Desktop

This is, now you know how to write to a file using echo command and how to read it using cat command via terminal. 

___________________ Conclusion: ___________________

We came to an end of my NDG Linux Essential course - week 6 - official reports in two parts. Hopefully now you know how to use some most common Linux commands such as pwd, cd, ls, mkdir, cp, mv,  rm, touch, cat, and I hope as well that you're not gonna stop it here. Linux is a vast and unexplored area for those of you willing to chase a career in Linux weather it's a Linux kernel developer, Linux system administrator or better, Linux app developer. But it's all to you, how much you are willing to learn in order to master Linux and to become a Linux ninja. Let me know in comments down bellow. Share some of your interesting Linux experience, I will be glad to share them via my YouTube channel and social networks. That's it. Thanks for reading and see you next time. 

And remember, choose wisely, choose Linux a system that works!

Sunday, 9 July 2017


Dok sam bio na drugoj godini Arheologije, imao sam predmet Arheologija Rima gdje sam učio od Vilanove kulture (kultura starijeg Željeznog doba Italije oko 1100. godine prije Krista) koja se između ostalog veže za Etrurce, zatim Etrursku civilizaciju u Toskani i bogate Etrurske nekropole pa sve do vladavine Sedam kraljeva Rima kao što su: Romul, Numa Pompilije, Ancije Marcije, Tulus Hostilije, Servije Tulije, Tarkvinije Prisko te Tarkvinije Oholi.

Onda slijedi doba Republike od Brutove narodne revolucije 509. prije Krista do cara Augusta koji 27. godine prije Krista upostavlja doba Carstva i Pax Romana. Uglavnom, stvarna razlika je ta što sa gledišta struke arheologija Rima je izuzetno golema i široka, te veoma često historičari ju ne pominju kada raspravljaju Rim. Bez daljnjeg duženja, da ukrako kažemo šta je to Monte Testačio i po čemu je poznat ovaj umjetnički brežuljak?

Piše: Amar Tufo
9. Juli, 2017

Stari grad Rim je podignut oko 756. godine prije Krista na Palatinu, jednom od sedam brežuljaka grada Rima. Osim Palatina tu su Kvirinal, Viminal, Aventin, Kapitol, Cela, Eskvilin ali postoji još jedan brežuljak koji je izuzetno važan a to je Monte Testačio, brežuljak koji se nalazi iznad Aventina. Ovo je međutim umjetnički brežuljak čije ime u prijevodu s latinskog znači 'brežuljak amfora' a ime je dobio prema 25 milijona fragmenata uljanih amfora koje su posredstvom trgovine dospijevale u Rim iz malenog gradića Baetika u dalekoj Hispaniji (Claridge 1998 : 367). 


Slika 1: Monte Testačio, Italija

Uljane amfore su uglavnom korištene za transport maslinovog ulja ali i drugih namjernica kao što su začin i riba. U arhitektonskom smislu, brežuljak zahvata površinu od oko 20 000 m2 te je sagrađen u 1. stoljeću prije Krista a u upotrebi je bio sve do 3. stoljeća nove ere. Na slici dva pogledajte kako izgleda primjer jedne Španske amfore:


Slika 2: Španski tip uljane amfore (lijevo) - Afrički tip uljane amfore (desno)
Izvor slike: Prema Amanda Claridge 1998 : 367


Uljane amfore iz Baetike su bile dosta masivne skoro 50.cm a ponekada blizu 1.30. cm. Imale su prosječnu težinu od oko 30 kg a mogle su skladištiti blizu 70 kg maslinova ulja. Nešto lakše su bile uljane amfore iz Tripolitanije i one iz Bizacene u Tunisu. 


Slika 3: Španske uljane amfore

________________ Zaključak ________________

Antički Rim je sam po sebi izuzetno misteriozan govoreći s arheološkog aspekta, ali s historijskog aspekta, Rim je nekada bio svjetska velesila koja je zajedno s dobom Carstva u svom posjedu imala oko 48 Rimskih provincija među kojima se nalazila i provincija Dalmacija, Panonija, i Mezija. Stoga arheolozi imaju pune ruke posla jer nikada ne znate šta se nalazi pod našim nogama, pod putevima kojima se svakodnevno vozimo, zemljom koju uremo i slično. Na kraju S.P.Q.R (Senatus Populusque Romanus). 


___________________ Izvor:___________________

1) Oxford Archaeological Guides Rome
   By Amanda Claridge © Oxford University Press
   Google Books link:  goo.gl/WcR1TS short URL
Toliko od mene za danas i do čitanja.

Kao što i sami znate, Adobe Photoshop je babo i majka, sveti hram za grafičke dizajnere ali i web dizajnere koji ne mogu zamisliti svoj život bez Photoshop-a i drugih alata kojim zarađuju za život. No, kada je riječ o ovom poslu na Linux-u tu i nemate nekih velikih opcija pa možete birati GIMP i Insckape, po meni dvije sjajne open source alternative komercijalnom Photoshop-u koji će podjednako dobro obaviti svakodnevni posao ukoliko naravno znate kako raditi s ova dva grafička alata. Eh sada, moje neko iskustvo u dizajnu loga web stranice ali i akreditacije se nedavno pokazalo na djelu gdje sam nedavno radio sopstveni logo web sajta ali i službene akreditacije. Bez daljnjeg oduživanja, pogledajmo kako sam ja to uradio dizajn. 

Piše: Amar Tufo
9. Juni, 2017

Na samom početku treba da napomenem da je novi logo web stranice dizajniran koristeći Insckape, sjajan open source komad softwera za obradu vektorske grafike te izradu i manipulaciju slika raznog formata. Evo kako logo web stranice izgleda:


Slika 1: AmarTufoInteractive logo (designed in Insckape by Amar Tufo)

Ukratko, radi se o tri trougla kroz koji prolazi polumjesečast motiv bijele boje čime nastaje bijeli shade efekat koji presijeca sva tri trougla. Gore na vrhu je text 'Diferent IT blog' koji se naslanja na naziv moje web stranice 'AmarTufoInteractive' a dole ispod do trećeg trougla je link do web sajta. Meni se je ovaj logo nekako najviše dopao obzirom da predstavlja razne kategorije koje su dostupne na web stranici o kojima i pišem. 

Nakon što sam dizajnirao svoj logo web stranice, bilo je i vrijeme da nakon tri godine pošto je web sajt na domeni .org, dizajniram i neku svoju unikatnu akreditaciju. Evo nekih primjera dizajna akreditacije u GIMP-u.


Slika 2: Prikaz akreditacije (avers) sa logom dizajniranim u GIMP-u
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija


Slika 2.1: Prikaz akreditacije (revers) sa logom web sajta u GIMP-u
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija

Ukratko, radi se o staroj akreditaciji koja je bila moj prvi pokušaj da dizajniram jedinstvenu i unikatnu akreditaciju kojom bi predstavljao svoj web sajt ali i svoj rad. Gore je i stari logo web stranice kojeg krasi heksagon koji se fino uklapa u naziv mog sajta. Međutim, kada sam konačno izradio akreditaciju, ona ipak nije zadovoljila moja očekivanja. Bilo je vrijeme za redizajn i drugu sreću.



Slika 3: Službena akreditacija AmarTufoInteractive (avers)
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija

Ovo je moj najbolji domet umijeća u grafičkom dizajnu, odnosno, dizajnu brenda sajta ali i neke zvanične akreditacije koja predstavlja moj biznis. Mislim da je ovdje GIMP jako fino odradio svoj posao, i mislim da sam uspio dizajnirati dosta dobru akreditaciju i bez Photoshop-a. Kada jedanput uplovite u prostrane Linux vode, onda tu luku jednostavno ne napuštate. 


Slika 3.1: Službena akreditacija AmarTufoInteractive (revers)
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija

Na reversu nisam ništa redao niti sam želio da to bude kitnjasto. Ovdje sam samo ubacio svoj logo sajta koji se jako fino uklopio u ova dva apstraktna oblika crvene boje koji istiću moju maštu prilikom izrade ove akreditacije. Posljednje što sam uradio jeste i moja visit karta koja izgleda ovako:


Slika 4: Službena visit karta (avers)
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija

I ova visit karta je moje dijelo dizajnirano ponosno u GIMP-u a jedina razlika je u tome što sam ovdje dodao i svoju sliku te pomjerio user i e-mail ikonicu jednu iznad druge kako bi nekako ova visit karta dobila svoj stil i ljepši izgled. Font korišten u titlu 'Amar Tufo', 'CEO' te 'amartufotm@gmail.com' je Chromia. I posljednji stilski dodatak jesu ove naranđaste linije koje sam dodao GIMP opcijom Filters > Render > Line nova


Slika 4.1: Službena visit karta (revers)
Izvor: /local/home/amar/Akreditacija

Isti sam efekat ponovio i na zadnjoj strani svoje visit karte. Stilski mi se jako dopada kako je ovo ispalo. Ono što još ne znam kako u realnosti ova visti karta izgleda obzirom da nije isprintana pa vam to ne mogu reći. Na kraju, možete ocijeniti izgled akreditacije, loga, ali i visit karte. Vaš glas je jako bitan pa vaše mišljenje ostavite u komentar ispod, šta vam se (ne)dopada, šta biste mijenjali kod sve tri slike i slično. Toliko od mene za danas.

Do čitanja.

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